Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education "Belgorod National Research University"

TRACTUS AEVORUM 4 (1). Spring 2017

Contents

 

JUBILEES IN HISTORY


ON THE CENTENNIAL OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1917


ACHIEVEMENTS AND FAILURES
IN THE STUDY OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1917


I. M. Pushkareva

Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences

In this analysis of domestic historiography of the 1917 Revolution in Russia the author highlights the importance of mass popular protests in understanding the causes of this crucial event, while noting that this factor has been unreasonably neglected by Russian historians since the early 1990s. She argues that both the character of the Revolution and the chances for a peaceful settlement of conflicts in Russian society depended solely on the policy of top state authorities, especially from 1916 forward.


1917–2017: LESSONS OF THE CENTURY FOR RUSSIA AND BEYOND

K. N. Lobanov

I. D. Putilin Belgorod Institute of Law,
Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

For most Russians, the year 1917 is primarily connected with the centennial of the February Revolution and the subsequent October events. This is quite logical, as 1917 is justly considered a landmark in modern Russian history, after which both the country and the world could not return to their previous condition and instead followed a new trajectory of social development. Influenced by Russian revolutionary ideas and Russia’s subsequent modernization, many countries reformed their capitalist economies to create welfare states and abandoned authoritarianism and formal democracy, while turning to a more open and diversified system of power and government. They also curtailed their suppression of individual freedoms while giving citizens more opportunities for self-expression. These developments became possible due to a thorough reflection on the Russian experience and its creative interpretation in the economy, state government, and social interactions.
The author addresses the following key questions in his article: did Russians themselves manage to reflect on this experience? In other words, did they learn from this experience? In analyzing the crucial events of 1917 and pointing to some later and contemporary parallels, he outlines his stance toward them.


FROM FEBRUARY TO OCTOBER:
A FEW WORDS ABOUT THE REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS OF 1917


V. M. Marasanova

P. G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University

This article deals with the revolutionary events in Russia in 1917. The author explores why a revolutionary situation developed in the country and how the democratic February Revolution soon was followed by the Bolshevik coup d’etat in October, paying special attention to interactions between the metropoles and the provinces. Marasanova concludes that the events in Petrograd determined the dynamics of the situation in Russia in 1917, while the province followed the city’s lead. Further, the disobedience of lower army ranks to their officers played a key part in the revolutions.


THE HAGUE PEACE CONFERENCE OF 1907:
A RETROSPECTIVE AFTER 110 YEARS


S. I. Chernyavskiy

MGIMO University

One hundred and ten years ago the Second Peace Conference took place in the Hague. It adopted important documents that codified certain laws and customs of war, thus contributing to the foundation of a system of international humanitarian law. This conference was a logical continuation of the 1899 Peace Conference, convened at the initiative of Russia, which established general rules for the peaceful settlement of conflicts between states, as well as a number of resolutions and declarations regarding the conduct of military operations. The article analyzes the reasons for convening these international forums and their significance for the world community.


TRANSIONAL EPOCHS


THE ACCIDENTAL WAR ...
(THE LIVONIAN WAR AND THE FOREIGN POLICY OF IVAN THE TERRIBLE)


Vitaly V. Penskoi

Belgorod National Research University


The author suggests a new approach to the study of the Livonian War and its place in Russian foreign policy in the late sixteenth century. Russian and foreign historiography has tended to stress the paramount importance of the Livonian War for the foreign policy of the Russian state and for Ivan the Terrible. However, some current scholars, including the author, have questioned this assumption. The author argues that for Ivan the Terrible, the conflict with the Crimean Khanate and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was of primary importance, while Livonia had more marginal significance for Moscow. As a result, the Livonian problem was given only secondary attention, leading to the Russian state’s poor showing during the first stage of the conflict over the Livonian inheritance.


HUNGARIAN FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE PREWAR CRISIS AND HUNGARY’S ENTRY INTO THE SECOND WORLD WAR

N. V. Filonenko

Peter the Great Voronezh State Agrarian University

The author analyzes Hungarian foreign policy during the period of prewar crisis and the early stage of the Second World War from 1938 to 1941, while paying special attention to the mechanics of the country`s entry into the war on the side of the Axis powers. Filonenko identifies opportunities and limitations for Hungary that resulted from its foreign policy conducted in the shadow of Nazi Germany. On the one hand, the authorities had the opportunity to renegotiate the unfavorable conditions imposed by the Treaty of Trianon to the extent allowed by the Third Reich. On the other hand, the country became increasingly dependent on Germany in political, military, and economic affairs. Indeed, these two dynamics worked together: the more Hungarian authorities took advantage of wartime opportunities, the more dependent it became on Germany; this relationship was exacerbated by Hungary being drawn into the Axis powers. As a result, by the time Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, Hungary had become a satellite of the Third Reich, and her declaration of war on the USSR followed soon after.


REVIEWS

 

A word to young scholars


MODERNITY, SPACE, AND MEMORY IN EAST GERMANY

John Gillespie

Middle Tennessee State University

The author reviews Amnesiopolis: Modernity, Space, and Memory in East Germany (Oxford, 2016) by Eli Rubin.


“BEING ROMAN AFTER ROME:” THE PROBLEM OF IDENTITY IN THE THEMATIC ISSUE OF EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE

E. A. Semicheva

Belgorod National Research University

The author considers the 2014 thematic issue of the journal Early Medieval Europe, “Being Roman after Rome,” which examined various aspects of individual and collective identity construction in early medieval Europe.


SCHOLARLY EVENTS


THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
“BEYOND THE TRADITIONAL HISTORIOGRAPHY OF EDUCATION IN RUSSIA IN THE LATE SEVENTEENTH THROUGH EARLY NINTEENTH CENTURIES”


Zh. Т. Bekmurzina

National Research University “Higher School of Economics”


A HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN PROVINCE IN THE LATE
NINTEENTH THROUGH EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY AT THE ASEEES CONVENTION


M. Iu. Semenov, E. N. Menshikova

Belgorod National Research University

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